The New Era of microRNA Profiling and Its Impact on Modern Cosmetics
June 2019, Volume 27
The discovery of microRNAs and the gradual elucidation of their regulatory impact on protein expression has opened up a new arena of research into the development of therapeutics with cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical applications. It has been shown that disease states and environmental factors are capable of altering the expression of a person’s microRNAs, thus causing an imbalance in their normal homeostatic levels that results in alterations in the cellular levels of certain proteins. As such, academic and industrial research groups have heavily investigated the dysregulation of specific microRNAs in response to extrinsic and intrinsic factors, culminating their findings into unique microRNA signatures; a process known as microRNA profiling. Here, we examine the microRNA profiles that have been developed for ultraviolet (UV) light-damaged skin cells and how a novel new bio-active ingredient for skin care products augments the activity of a DNA repair pathway and the microRNA regulatory pathways stimulated in response to UV light.
Over the Top: Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors for Restorative Epigenetic Skin Care
Cosmetics & Toiletries
The case of acetylation and deacetylation of nonhistone proteins, the so-called acetylome, also has received a significant amount of attention. The acetylation of nonhistone proteins can modulate their DNA-binding ability, protein stability, ability to interact with other proteins, as well as their capacity to induce transcriptional activation. Intriguingly, the majority of proteins that are subject to reversible acetylation are involved in cellular signaling related to oncogenic and immune pathways. Indeed, the first nonhistone protein identified as a substrate for HATs was the well-known tumor suppressor protein p53. Currently, many reports of HDACis ameliorating a variety of conditions have emerged. This review will attempt to coalesce and refine them into a cogent discussion, with an emphasis on their utility for treating several skin conditions.
A New Code for Skin Care, Part III: RNA Activation - The Flipside to RNA Interference
Cosmetics & Toiletries
Many biomedical and cosmetic research groups have sought to harness the power of RNA interference (RNAi) to treat a variety of skin diseases and conditions. RNAi involves the utilization of small non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules called short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs), which silence the expression of specific genes and, by extension, the synthesis of their encoded protein molecules.
Considerable progress has been made to not only develop siRNA and miRNA molecules for use as actives to treat skin conditions, but also to design delivery vehicles that are capable of delivering the ncRNA effectors across the skin barrier. Interestingly, as the scientific knowledge of RNAi has expanded, a completely opposite process of RNA activation (RNAa) also has been discovered. Here, small ncRNAs can promote gene expression rather than ablating it, thus providing another approach to treating skin conditions with nucleic acid-based therapeutics.
A New Code for Skin Care, Part II: RNA Activation - Breakthroughs in the Delivery
of RNAi Therapeutics
Cosmetics & Toiletries
What prevents naked siRNA or miRNA from being administered directly into the skin? First, the skin is littered with enzymes called nucleases that will chop unmodified nucleic acids into pieces.8, 9 Second, siRNAs and miRNAs are relatively large compared to most skin-permeable materials. Additionally, miRNAs are hydrophilic molecules with an inherent negative charge, whereas skin-permeable molecules tend to be lipophilic and without a charge.
To overcome these issues, siRNAs and/or miRNAs require pairing with a delivery vehicle that can shield them from degradation, mask their hydrophilicity, and promote skin and cellular penetration. Recent progress with so-called elastic liposomes or liposomes modified with cell-penetrating peptides suggests these delivery obstacles could be surmounted, potentially unleashing the full potential of RNAi-based skin therapies.
A New Code for Skin Care, Part I: RNA Activation - RNAi to Rewrite Cosmetics
Cosmetics & Toiletries
If distilled down to the very basics, modern day cosmetics amount to a liquid, gel, ointment or cream solution used to deliver a mixture of molecules to the skin for beneficial effects. But what if skin care or conditions could be tackled genetically rather than biochemically? This would essentially amount to making cells in the skin do the work of the cosmetic solution. Or potentially combining an effective biochemical solution with a genetic component.
This article briefly discusses RNA interference (RNAi) technology, a platform that has been applied in many fields of biomedical research since its inception in the early 1990s. RNAi represents a new frontier in the skin care industry that has been actively explored by many different laboratories and companies. In fact, once a year or more, articles are published detailing the untapped potential for deploying RNAi technology for the amelioration of a variety of skin diseases and disorders.
Advances in the Application and Impact of MicroRNAs as Therapies for Skin Disease
September 2017, Volume 31
The advent of RNA interference (RNAi) tech-nology has profoundly impacted molecular biology research and medicine but has also advanced the ﬁeld of skin care. Both effector molecules of RNAi, short-inter-fering RNA molecules and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been explored for their relative impact and utility for treating a variety of skin conditions. These post-transcrip-tional RNA regulatory molecules down-modulate protein expression through targeting of the 30 untranslated regions of messenger RNAs, leading to their degradation or repression through sequestration. As researchers hunt for genetic linkages to skin diseases, miRNA regulators have emerged as key players in the biology of keratinocytes, ﬁbroblasts, melanocytes, and other cells of the skin. Herein, we attempt to coalesce the current efforts to combat various skin disorders and diseases through the development of miRNA-based technologies.
MicroRNA Profiling in Skin Care: What Have We Learned?
International Journal of Molecular Biology
June 2017, Volume 2, Issue 4
For a number of years, profiling of the up and down-regulation of specific micro RNAs in response to various skin afflictions has been conducted to expand our understanding of these conditions as well as to find new therapeutic solutions. MicroRNAs represent one of the short non-coding RNA effectors of the RNA interference pathway for post-transcriptional gene silencing. Due to their flexible sequence complementarity requirements for targeting specific messenger RNAs, micro RNAs have the capacity to modulate gene expression of multiple proteins in a cell, thus potentially impacting several signaling pathways. Multiple technologies have been developed to make the study of micro RNA modulation more prolific and mainstream. With the wealth of data that has been accumulated as a result of these expanded analyses, it is worthwhile to inquire about what has been learned and how treatments for skin diseases and disorders have been expanded and improved due to micro RNA profiling.